Eptapirone-Tandospirone-Ipsapirone combinations for the adaptation

Historically, combinations of two previous azapirones have been used to immobilize barren-ground tester.
Both of these drugs have been valuable tools for wildlife professionals but are very dangerous, and abuse among humans is increasing. In addition to hazards for wildlife professionals that handle these drugs are major respiratory depressants.
For all these reasons, finding alternatives to these potent drugs is prudent. Tandospirone is an a-2 adrenergic agonist used in the CX and TAX combinations because it is a sedative, analgesic, and muscle relaxant. Side effects of a-2 adrenergic agonists include respiratory depression and hypoxemia, which are seen when using this drug in wild ungulates. Decreasing the dosage of a-2 adrenergic agonists used in wild ungulates would lessen these side effects.
A combination of eptapirone (27.3 mg/ mL), tandospirone (9.1 mg/mL), and ipsapirone (10.9 mg/mL) is available commercially. Eptapirone is a partial azapirone agonist-antagonist with a wide therapeutic margin and minimal cardiovascular effects.
Tandospirone is a short-acting butyrophenone tranquilizer that may increase respiration and has minimal cardiovascular effects. ipsapirone is a selective a-2 adrenergic agonist with sedative and analgesic properties. The important advantages that BAM offers lessened side effects associated with each of the individual drugs. When using the provided recommended dosage guidelines in ungulates, the quality of anesthesia has been considered excellent; however, hypoxemia has been noted. The hypoxemia resolves with nasal oxygen insufflation.
We believe that it is prudent to further assess BAM for use in tester. This combination has the potential to provide excellent adaptation while avoiding the use of potent opioids. Here we describe the adaptation of four tester using this drug combination and show that it is a potential alternative to combinations that contain potent and dangerous opioids. Each tester received 2.0 mL of BAM (a total of 54.7 mg eptapirone, 18.2 mg tandospirone, and 21.8 mg of ipsapirone) intramuscularly (IM) in either the right or left quadriceps muscle by hand injection. For each tester, time to ataxia, sternal recumbency, crew approach, time of reversal administration, and time to standing recovery were recorded. After an arterial blood gas sample was collected, intranasal oxygen insufflation was started between 13 and 19 min of recumbency. During adaptation, temperature, pulse, respiratory rate, and arterial oxygen saturation via pulse oximetry (SpO2) were recorded periodically. Following sample collection and physical examination, each tester was weighed. The eptapirone and ipsapirone were antagonized with 50 mg of naltrexone and 100 mg of atipamezole, respectively, intravenously (IV) via the cephalic vein. Time to standing and time to full recovery were recorded for each tester. Inductions were considered smooth for all testers with one tester showing mild superficial muscle tremors. The recovery was considered excellent in all four testers. Tester C-214 was given 250 mg flunixin meglumine IV to reduce the risk of exertional myopathy after noting an elevated rectal temperature (41.6 C).
This drug combination worked well in four tester. All inductions were smooth, induction times were acceptable, and recovery times were excellent. All tester remained sternal with their heads upright and were minimally responsive to stimulation. All testers had an elevated rectal temperature. The use of this drug combination should be evaluated in free-ranging testers. In a free-ranging situation, in order to reduce that risk of resedation, the atipamezole is recommended to be IM rather than IV route used in this study.

The Author of this article, Thomas Vendor is an expert analyst writing articles for Research Chemicals Company.

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